Mark Twain [Samuel Langhorne Clemens](November 30, 1835—April 21, 1910) was born in Florida, Missouri, son of a restless Virginian who dreamed of making a fortune in land speculation. The family settled in Hannibal, Missouri in 1839. Twain became a printer’s apprentice (1847), then successively a journeyman printer, writer of humorous sketches, and steamboat pilot. On the outbreak of the Civil War, and after brief service as a Confederate irregular, he went to Nevada, joined the staff of the Virginia City Territorial Enterprise (1862) and adopted his pen name. Twain’s short story, Jim Smiley and His Jumping Frog appeared in the New York Saturday Press (1865). The Alta Californian financed his passage aboard a shipload of tourists bound for the Mediterranean and the Holy Land, and his account of this voyage, The Innocents Abroad (1869) was very successful. Twain had also become a popular humorous lecturer. In 1871 he published Roughing It, an account of his years in the Far West. He then moved to Hartford, Connecticut and, besides writing and lecturing, became involved in various business enterprises and investments, including his own publishing company. Books he published included the Memoirs of General U. S. Grant. Among the books Twain wrote in this period are The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876), The Prince and the Pauper (1882), Life on the Mississippi (1883), Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884), A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court (1889), and Pudd’nhead Wilson (1894). The powerful contrast between the freedom of life aboard the raft, away from society in nature, and the corruption, materialism, sentimentality, and emotional frustration along the shore as depicted in Huckleberry Finn, making it one of the great works in fiction.